Faux Deep Dish Pizza (Relatively Low Carb)

I love pizza, but it’s not a low carb food. This is my close substitute, a variant of deep dish pizza, made without a crust in a casserole dish.

3 15 oz cans Don Pepino pizza sauce
2 13 oz cans mushrooms
3 8 oz bags of shredded mozzarella
44 slices pepperoni

Nutritional info for the entire pizza:
4585 calories
324 grams fat
275 grams protein
105 grams carbohydrates (fiber has been subtracted)

Per serving nutritional info, I get four servings out of it, you may get more or less:
1146 calories
81 grams fat
69 grams protein
26 grams carbohydrates

It is not super low carb, but it is fairly low carb. It’s not really LCHF (Low Carb High Fat) but it is close, if your carbs for the rest of the day really are zero.


Preheat the oven to 350F, or 325F if you use convection mode (which I do).

Drain the pizza sauce in a sieve to remove as much of the liquid as you can, so the resulting pizza will not be too soupy.

While doing that, cook the sausage in a pan.

Put a thin layer of the pizza sauce on the bottom of the casserole dish.

Sprinkle mozzarella cheese on top of the sauce, about one packet, maybe a bit less. Then add about half of the sausage and one can of drained mushrooms.

Put another layer of cheese on top, then half the pepperonis, for my casserole dish I find I can fit 22 of them.

Then put the rest of the sausage and another drained can of mushrooms on top.

Then put the rest of the cheese on top, then put the rest of the pizza sauce on that.

Bake for one hour.

Remove, turn off the oven, and add pepperoni on top, place back in the oven and finish for about 10 or 15 minutes until the pepperoni has crisped up a bit.


Running an RTL SDR USB Dongle On Your Mac The Easy Way With Cocoa RTL Server

I’ve had a few of the RTL radio tuner dongles for a while. These are USB devices that were originally made for use as TV tuners overseas, but it turns out that you can access the I/Q data stream, and turn them into an SDR (Software Defined Radio). They can be tuned roughly over a range of 25 to 1700 MHz, and sometimes even higher, depending on the tuner IC chip inside the particular dongle.

I previously posted about how to get the RTL dongle working on the Mac here: An SDR for $17 – The R820T USB RTL-SDR DVB-T Dongle and here: An SDR for $17 – The R820T USB RTL-SDR DVB-T Dongle – Part 2. These posts were from 2013, and I did the installation on a Mac running OS X 10.6, using some pre-built libraries.

Fast forward to the present day. I got a new Mac running OS X 10.11 El Capitan, and I wanted to be able to use the RTL dongles with my favorite SDR software on the Mac, SdrDx. Enter Cocoa RTL Server.

Cocoa RTL Server is a stand alone app that interfaces with an RTL dongle. It does not require you to build or install any drivers or libraries. It just works. It’s based off of an open source app called SoftShell, that I heavily extended. Cocoa RTL Server also acts like a networked SDR, following the RF Space protocol. That means it works with SdrDx, as well as any other SDR app on the Mac that supports RF Space SDRs like the netSDR. You can download a copy of the app from the Cocoa RTL Server page. Source code is included, however I am not offering any support for the project or final app.

Here’s a screenshot of the app running:

Getting up and running is easy:

1. Plug in your RTL device
2. Run CocoaRTLServer 2.0
3. Select the device from the popup menu (usually it is already selected)
4. Change the rtl_tcp or tx_tcp port values if needed
5. Click Open
6. Configure your SDR app (set the correct TCP port) and run it

I’ve run it under Mac OS X 10.6, 10.10 and 10.11, It should run under 10.7-10.9 as well. It only works with RTL devices with an E4000 or R820T tuner IC.

Using SdrDx, I can tune a large portion of the FM broadcast band, click to view full size:

In this case I am tuned to 97.9 MHz. To the left of the signal meter, you can see it has decoded the station ID from the RDS data. Yes, SdrDx decodes RDS.

If you look at the lower right corner, you see the scope display of the demodulated FM audio. There are markers for the portions of interest:
You can see the main audio above the green marker to the left.
The stereo pilot at 19 kHz (red marker).
The stereo subcarrier (aquamarine)
The RDS data (orange)
The 67 kHz SCA subcarrier (purple)
The 92 kHz SCA subcarrier (yellow)

Cocoa RTL Server also includes a server that emulates rtl_tcp, so it works with Cocoa1090 which decodes aircraft transponders that transmit on 1090 MHz. It should also work with any other app that gets data from rtl_tcp. Here’s a screenshot of Cocoa1090 running:

Using an SDR-14 or SDR-IQ with Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan (Also applies to 10.10 Yosemite)

If you use an SDR-14 or SDR-IQ with Mac OS X 10.10 or 10.11, you may run into issues due to Apple’s built in FTDI USB driver, which prevents the FTDI D2XX library from accessing it. Previously you could just unload the driver when you wanted to run your SDR software, but Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan compounds the problem by making that impossible under normal conditions. This is part of Apple’s System Integrity Protection (SIP), also known as “rootless” mode.

SIP prevents any user, even those with system administrator (“root”) privileges, modifying a number of operating system directories and files.

Unfortunately this also prevents you from stopping the use of Apple’s built in FTDI driver, which you must do in order to run applications that use FTDI’s D2XX library. In our case, to stop the use of Apple’s built in driver, we need to install a codeless kernel extension (kext). This extension claims priority over Apple’s built in driver, but doesn’t actually do anything, leaving the device available for the D2XX library to access it. It should also work under 10.9 Mavericks, making it unnecessary to unload the Apple kext each time you want to use your SDR.

Before continuing, please note that you perform all these steps at your own risk. Guaranteed to blow up your Mac. blah blah blah.

To disable SIP on Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan:
1. Restart your Mac.
2. As soon as you hear the startup chime, hold down Command-R and keep it held down until you see the Apple icon and a progress bar.
3. After you have booted into Recovery Mode, select Terminal from the Utilities menu.
4. At the prompt type: csrutil disable
5. You should see a message saying that SIP was disabled.
6. Select Restart from the Apple menu.

If you’re running Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite, you can disable kernel extension code signing:

1. Open the Terminal application
2. Type the following: kext-dev-mode=1
3. Press return and enter your administrator password
4. Reboot.

The next step is to install a codeless kernel extension. It won’t actually do anything, other then prevent the built in Apple FTDI USB driver from being used with the SDR. You can download unsigned codeless kernel extension (kext) files, along with a copy of the SDR-xx Server app, here: http://radiohobbyist.org/blog/mypics/SDR_14_IQ_Mac_OSX.zip

Under El Capitan and Yosemite, it needs to be installed in /Library/Extensions./
If you need to load an unsigned kext in Mavericks, it should be in /System/Library/Extensions/

For El Capitan and Yosemite, we would type the following at the Terminal prompt (assuming you’re in the directory containing the kext file):
sudo cp -r SDR14USBFTDICodelessKext.kext /Library/Extensions

In Mavericks:
sudo cp -r SDR14USBFTDICodelessKext.kext /System/Library/Extensions

For an SDR-IQ, you would use the file SDRIQUSBFTDICodelessKext.kext instead, as it has a different USB PID (Product ID).

You should then be able to plug in your SDR-14 or SDR-IQ, and see it is found by the SDR-xx Server app. Note that to run SDR-XX Server, libftd2xx.1.0.4.dylib needs to be installed in /usr/local/lib
cp libftd2xx.1.0.4.dylib /usr/local/lib

You can then run SdrDx or another SDR app that expects a networked SDR.

I can’t provide individual assistance with getting this to work, but feel free to post questions as comments, and maybe I or someone else can provide an answer.

Winter 2015-2016 Snowfall

Saturday December 19, 2015:
Trace snow.

December Total: Trace

2015-2016 Season Total: Trace

Monday January 4, 2016:

Tuesday January 12, 2016:

Sunday January 17, 2016:

Wednesday January 20, 2016:

Friday January 22, 2016 – Saturday January 23, 2016:

January Total: 28.8″

Friday February 5, 2016:
A dusting of snow while temperature were above freezing.

Tuesday February 9, 2016:
7.5″ as of 11:00 AM. Fairly wet and heavy snow. Above freezing for much of the time it fell.
Then 2.8″ in the evening for a total of 10.3″.
Some earlier pictures:

Friday February 12, 2016:
1.0″ of very light and puffy snow, I was able to clear the driveway with the leaf blower.

Monday February 15, 2016:
1.0″ of snow, later changing to sleet and some light freezing rain.

Thursday February 25, 2016:
Snow flurries.

Friday February 26, 2016:
Snow flurries.

February Total: 12.3″

Friday March 4, 2016:
1.6″ of snow.

Sunday March 6, 2016:
A dusting of snow.

Saturday March 19, 2016:
0.5″ of snow.

March Total: 2.16″

Sunday April 3, 2016:
A dusting of snow during a strong wind event.

Friday April 8, 2016:
Snow flurries.

Saturday April 9, 2016:
0.5″ of snow, also some graupel.

April Total: 0.5″

2015-2016 Season Total: 43.7″

Cocoa1090 Mode S (ADS-B) aircraft transponder decoder for Mac OS X

Cocoa1090 is a Mode S (ADS-B) aircraft transponder decoder for Mac OS X, written for use with RTL-SDR devices (RTL based USB tuner dongles). These transmissions are at 1090 MHz, and can be received at a distance of a few hundred miles, often even with a modest antenna.

Cocoa 1090 uses rtl_tcp, part of the free RTL-SDR package, to control the RTL device, and produce I/Q data.

Some tips for installing RTL-SDR are here: http://www.hfunderground.com/wiki/RTL-SDR

Cocoa1090 displays all received aircraft, including the altitude, heading, speed, and flight number, as well as the tail number and aircraft model (if it is part of the included database, you can add your own tail numbers). Some transponders include position information, this is also displayed if received, and used to map those planes (Click on the image below to see it full size):

Cocoa 1090 is free, a copy can be downloaded from the website: http://www.blackcatsystems.com/software/cocoa1090.html

Receiving DGPS Stations with MultiMode For Mac OS X

MultiMode for Mac OS X can decode DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) transmissions. DGPS stations transmit the difference between positions indicated by GPS satellite systems and the known fixed position of the station. This allows higher accuracy. DGPS transmissions are 100 or 200 baud and are transmitted on frequencies from 285 kHz to 325 kHz. They can be interesting DX targets.

A copy of MultiMode can be downloaded here: http://www.blackcatsystems.com/download/multimode.html

To decode the transmission, tune your radio to a DGPS frequency. You can either tune directly to the frequency in CW mode, in which case you set the center frequency in MultiMode to that for your radio’s CW mode, or use USB mode, tune 1 kHz low, and set the center frequency to 1000 Hz.

You can listen to an example DGPS audio recording

Select the baud rate, either 100 or 200 baud, using the button. Also be sure to set your location so that the correct distance and bearing is calculated. Eventually, if you have tuned into a DGPS transmission that is strong enough, you will start seeing decode messages printed:

The Short Demod button can be toggled on, in which case MultiMode will look at a smaller part of the DGPS packet. This often allows decodes of weaker transmissions.

Note that since no error checking is performed on the packet, it is possible to get false decodes. To help determine if you are actually receiving the correct station, compare the printed frequency for that station to what your radio is tuned to, to verify they match. Also look for several decodes from the same station in a row, that indicates that you probably are really receiving that station.

Here’s a list of some stations I have received here with a modest 200 ft random wire antenna:

[15:44:47 11/19/15] 008 804 008 009 286.0 kHz Sandy Hook, NJ United States 40.4747 -74.0197 235.632 km 45.2895 deg
[19:27:49 11/19/15] 198 772 198 199 306.0 kHz Acushnet, MA United States 41.7492 -70.8886 529.571 km 53.1416 deg
[19:28:52 11/19/15] 190 782 190 191 305.0 kHz Dandridge, TN United States 36.0225 -83.3067 723.745 km 245.071 deg
[19:29:12 11/19/15] 156 863 156 157 311.0 kHz Rock Island IL United States 42.0203 -90.2311 1245.06 km 290.156 deg
[19:32:00 11/19/15] 012 806 012 013 289.0 kHz Driver, VA United States 36.9633 -76.5622 231.719 km 192.449 deg
[19:33:00 11/19/15] 184 788 184 185 291.0 kHz Hawk Run, PA United States 40.8889 -78.1889 280.839 km 319.079 deg
[19:33:24 11/19/15] 006 803 006 007 293.0 kHz Moriches, NY United States 40.7944 -72.7564 340.978 km 53.1725 deg
[19:33:37 11/19/15] 196 771 196 197 294.0 kHz New Bern, NC United States 35.1806 -77.0586 434.825 km 192.789 deg
[19:33:50 11/19/15] 092 843 092 093 295.0 kHz St Mary's, WV United States 39.4381 -81.1758 448.281 km 277.867 deg
[19:33:54 11/19/15] 136 792 136 137 297.0 kHz Bobo, MS United States 34.1253 -90.6964 1414.92 km 252.075 deg
[19:33:59 11/19/15] 058 847 058 059 301.0 kHz Annapolis, MD United States 39.0181 -76.61 52.734 km 272.373 deg
[19:36:40 11/19/15] 046 824 046 047 303.0 kHz Greensboro, NC United States 36.0694 -79.7381 463.251 km 226.48 deg
[19:40:01 11/19/15] 218 777 218 219 304.0 kHz Mequon, WI United States 43.2025 -88.0664 1110.64 km 298.697 deg
[19:41:11 11/19/15] 130 834 130 131 307.0 kHz Hagerstown, MD United States 39.5553 -77.7219 160.52 km 293.159 deg
[19:43:59 11/19/15] 312 929 312 313 296.0 kHz St Jean Richelieu, QC Canada 45.3244 -73.3172 736.38 km 16.5642 deg
[19:44:05 11/19/15] 154 862 154 155 322.0 kHz St Louis, MO United States 38.6189 -89.7644 1190.3 km 272.301 deg
[19:55:36 11/19/15] 112 836 112 113 292.0 kHz Cheboygan, MI United States 45.6556 -84.475 1013.8 km 319.521 deg
[20:32:19 11/19/15] 017 808 016 017 314.0 kHz Card Sound, FL United States 25.4417 -80.4525 1560.45 km 196.764 deg
[20:34:44 11/19/15] 340 942 340 341 288.0 kHz Cape Ray, NL Canada 47.6356 -59.2408 1650.3 km 49.1252 deg
[22:10:54 11/19/15] 168 869 168 169 290.0 kHz Louisville, KY United States 38.0175 -85.31 816.337 km 265.238 deg
[22:11:34 11/19/15] 192 778 192 193 292.0 kHz Kensington, SC United States 33.4906 -79.3494 681.801 km 207.126 deg
[22:20:26 11/19/15] 320 925 320 321 313.0 kHz Moise, QC Canada 50.2025 -66.1194 1464.05 km 28.7438 deg
[11:34:56 11/20/15] 262 881 262 263 302.0 kHz Point Loma, CA United States 32.6769 -117.25 3697.45 km 272.2 deg

Seasonal Pirate Radio Stations

Tune into the 43 meter pirate radio band, which is roughly 6800 to 7000 kHz, but 6925 kHz in particular, on any given evening, and you’re likely to hear one or more broadcasts. While many stations transmit throughout the year, there are a few seasonal stations that you will only hear on certain days. To help you keep track of these stations, here’s a short summary of the more widely reported seasonal pirates. Note that the schedules of pirate radio stations are very flexible, and often broadcasts of these seasonal stations will be heard on a nearby weekend instead of the actual holiday, when there are usually more listeners.

I’ve also included QSLs from some of the stations.

WMLK – Recordings of speeches by Martin Luther King Jr, usually around his celebrated birthday, the next is January 18, 2016.

Voice of Pancho Villa – Heard during the time the NASWA Winter SWL Fest, which is usually in February.

WPDR Presidents’ Day Radio – Heard around Presidents’ Day with recordings of speeches by various Presidents. In 2016, Presidents’ Day is February 15.

Frederic Chopin Radio – Plays classical piano music, heard on our around his birthday of March 1.

XEROX – A classic parody of a Mexican radio station, usually on the air April Fools Day (April 1).

Radio Cinco De Mayo – Heard on or around the Mexican Holiday on May 5.

KHAQQ / Amelia Earhart Often heard on or around July 3, with simulated communications between ground station NRUI and Earhart (KHAQQ), trying to locate her.

Radio Paisano – A program of Italian related music which airs around Columbus Day, which is next observed October 10, 2016.

Halloween themed stations – Lots of stations are heard around Halloween, here’s several of the most active:
Peskie Party Halloween
Pumpkin Patch Radio
Radio Halloween
Satan Radio
The Great Pumpkin
WAHR Automated Halloween Radio
Witch City Radio

Edmund Fitzgerald Radio – Commemorates the sinking of the ship with the Gordon Lightfoot song as well as recordings of marine communications. Heard on November 10.

WJFK – Usually on the air around day of President Kennedy’s assassination, November 22. Traditionally, the station plays these three songs:
“Abraham, Martin & John” by Dion
“Sunny” by Bobby Hebb
“PT-109″ by Jimmy Dean

Another variant has appeared in recent years, which plays recordings of news announcements of the assassination.

Turkey Breast Radio – Heard on or around Thanksgiving.

Happy Hanukkah Radio – Heard during the eight days of Hanukkah. Usually the following is heard:
“Miracle of Miracles” from Fiddler on the Roof
“Hava Nagila” by the Effi Netzer Singers
“2000 Year Old man” skit by Mel Brooks.

Christmas themed stations – Another popular holiday for pirates:
Fruitcake Station
Radio Jingle Bells
Snowball Radio

Irregular stations:

WUBR Ultimate Blizzard Radio – Occasionally heard during major snowstorms.

Victory Radio – Heard when University of Texas wins a football game.

Poor conditions for some on 43 meters last night, better for others

One measure of the strength of the ionosphere is called foF2. It is the maximum frequency that will be reflected straight back. That is imagine the radio transmitter and receiver are located near each other, the radio waves go straight up, and are reflected straight back down to the receiver. foF2 is continuously varying, based on solar activity, and what part of the Earth the Sun is over. You can find a real time map at this URL: http://www.spacew.com/www/fof2.gif

As the distance between the transmitter and receiver increases, the radio waves are not perpendicular to the ionosphere, but instead strike it at an angle. This allows frequencies higher than foF2 to be reflected. The angle that the radio waves strike the ionosphere depends on the distance between the transmitter and receiver, and the height of the ionosphere, which unfortunately also varies. This is called the hmF2, and there’s a real time map of it also: http://www.spacew.com/www/hmf2.gif

The Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) can be found by:
MUF = foF2 * sqrt( 1+ [D/(2*hmF2)]^2) where D is the distance in km.

Lately, foF2 has been reaching very low values once the Suns sets. This is what causes the 43 meter band to “go long”, making it difficult to impossible to hear stations even many hundreds of miles away. As an example, here is a plot of the measured foF2 value taken over Wallops Island, VA. Consider these values typical for much of the eastern US during this time period:

The blue trace is today’s foF2 values, red is yesterday’s, and the green trace is an average of the last five days.

foF2 was about 5 MHz at 2300z, dropping to 4.5 MHz by 0000z. This was evident in the loggings for The Crystal Ship. Many listeners who normally get a strong signal from this station had poor or no reception (as was my case). This was also the start of a geomagnetic storm, the K index at 0000z was 3, and has since risen to 5 as I type this.

The flip side of a low foF2 value is that listeners at a greater distance from a station can get stronger signals. The geomagnetic storm last night could also have actually enhanced reception for some listeners. Medium wave DXers have referred to geomagnetic storms as “stirring the gumbo”, bringing in a different mix of station than are normally heard.

Update – here is the link to the real time Wallops Island foF2 chart: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/IONO/rt-iono/realtime/WP937_foF2.png and the current graph itself:

Winter 2014-2015 Snowfall

Thursday November 13, 2014:
0.5 inch snow.

Wednesday November 26, 2014:
0.56 inch of rain, changed to snow early morning
3.9 inch snow.
Changed to graupel as it was ending.

Science experiment with the kids:

We cut a block of snow from outside, 12.5 by 9 by 7.5 cm, and computed the volume: 843.75 cm3. We shaved the top to make sure it was even.

Then we took the snow and weighed it, and came up with 160g.

We melted the snow and measured the volume, and got 160 ml (nice to see the agreement).

Then we computed the snow to liquid ratio: 843.75/160=5.27.

Our measured snow depth here was 3.9 inches, so that is 0.74 inches liquid. We got 0.56 inch of rain before it switched to snow. So rather impressive 1.3 inches of liquid total.

Saturday November 29, 2014:
0.3 inch of snow from a quick dusting.

November Total: 4.7 inches

Tuesday December 2, 2014:
0.54 inch of rain.
0.2 inch of snow/sleet.

Monday December 8, 2014:
Snow flurries.

Tuesday December 9, 2014:
0.1 inch freezing rain.

Wednesday December 10, 2014:
Snow flurries in the evening.

Thursday December 11, 2014:
Snow flurries and light snow throughout the day, 0.25 inch total accumulation.

December Total: 0.45 inches

Monday January 5, 2015:
Snow flurries in the morning.

Tuesday January 6, 2015:
3.0 inches of snow.

Wednesday January 7, 2015:
0.3 inches of snow.

Monday January 12, 2015:
0.1 inch of freezing rain.

Wednesday January 14, 2015:
0.2 inches of snow.

Monday January 19, 2015:
Dusting of snow.

Wednesday January 21, 2015:
3.5 inches of snow.

Friday January 23, 2015 – Saturday January 24, 2015:
1.25 inches of snow.

Monday January 26, 2015 – Tuesday January 27, 2015:
1.9 inches of snow.

Thursday January 29, 2015
0.25 inches of snow.

January Total: 10.4 inches

Monday February 2, 2015
1.0 inches of snow/sleet/rain/etc.

Monday February 9, 2015
Crunchy coating of snow, sleet, freezing rain.

Thursday February 12, 2015
0.1 inches of snow.

Saturday February 14, 2015
0.5 inches of snow.

Monday February 16, 2015 – Tuesday February 17, 2015
2.5 inches of snow.

Wednesday February 18, 2015
0.1 inches of snow.

Thursday February 19, 2015
A dusting of snow.

Saturday February 21, 2015
7.25 inches of snow.

Thursday February 26, 2015
0.2 inches of snow.

Friday February 27, 2015
0.25 inches of snow.

February Total: 11.90 inches

Sunday March 1, 2015
1.0 inch of snow, followed by sleet and about 0.1 inch of freezing rain.

Tuesday March 3, 2015
0.1 inch of freezing rain.

Thursday March 5, 2015
13.25 inches of snow.

Friday March 20, 2015
3.0 inches of snow.

Tuesday March 24, 2015
Dusting of snow.

March (to date) Total: 17.25 inches snow, 0.1 inch ice

Season To Date Total: 44.70 inches

A Statistical Analysis of A Somewhat Subjective Rating of the Day’s Weather

Below is an analysis of the Capital Weather Gang’s “Daily Digit”, a number from 1 to 10 given each morning to the day’s expected weather. 574 days worth of Daily Digits were analyzed, from March 19, 2013 through October 13, 2014. The starting date was picked as that was the first date where it was easy to get a copy of the CWG’s archived web pages.

The mean daily digit was 6.32.

Below is a trend graph of the Daily Digit, smoothed slightly to make it more readable:

The slope upwards over time could be an artifact of the range of dates chosen, or it could be genuine Daily Digit Inflation.

Below is a histogram of the Daily Digit values:

There were only five days with a Daily Digit of 1; they were:

June 13, 2013 – David Streit (Severe weather)
December 9, 2013 – Jason Samenow (“Sloppy, cloudy and cold”)
December 29, 2013 – Brian Jackson (“40s and soaking rain in December”)
January 3, 2014 – A. Camden Walker (Icy from snow the night before)
January 28, 2014 – Matt Rogers (“Cruel cold slaps us in the face again”)

The mean Daily Digit per month of the year:

The mean Daily Digit per day of the week:

The mean Daily Digit per author:

There is a fairly regular rotation of authors, each generally writing on the same day, hence the strong correlation between the above two graphs. Each author had between 73 to 81 posts.

Not included in the above were the following two authors with a limited number of Daily Digits:
Kathryn Prociv: 10 entries with a mean of 8.3
Rick Grow: 8 entries with a mean of 5.0

There were also a few cases where two authors were credited the same day, also not included above:
Matt Rogers;Jason Samenow: 3 entries with a mean of 3.33
Brian Jackson;Dan Stillman: 2 entries: with a mean of 3.5
A. Camden Walker;Ian Livingston: 1 entry with a mean of 2 (January 10, 2014, Freezing Rain)
Dan Stillman;Ian Livingston: 1 entry with a mean of 4 (February 15, 2014, Snow)
Dan Stillman;Jason Samenow: 1 entry with a mean of 3 (February 26, 2014, “Mother Nature hits the repeat button with light morning snow”)

A big thanks to the Capital Weather Gang for their fabulous posts each day!


Here’s histograms for each author: